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Święta i tradycje w krajach anglojęzycznych



Święta i tradycje w krajach anglojęzycznych




Columbus Day



On this day people in many countries , especially in the USA, anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus on 12 October.

In the USA, Columbus Day (also called Discovery Day) is officially celebrated on the second Monday in October. The Americans spend this day in many ways. There are parades and the most famous one in New York, and religious services. There is also an anniversary mass and after it put a flowers at the foot of the statue of Columbus in Boston. What is more, you can see a show which presents the story of the discovery. Every year the America (also called New World) pays tribute to Christopher Columbus who is its discoverer.





Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, a beautiful Italian town, in 1451. He made many voyages: to England, Africa, the Madeira Islands and the Azores.

His dream was to find a new way to the East Indies. Columbus didn’t want to follow other sailors and decided to sail west. Columbus needed sponsors of the voyage, so he went to Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain. They liked the idea of a new route and provided him with money and three ships: Santa Maria, Pita and Nia. On 3 August, 1492 Columbus sailed from Palos in Spain. After a long journey, the sailors saw the land on 12 October. Columbus went ashore and named the island “San Salvador . He thought that the land was the Indies so when he met some natives, he called them “Indians . After visiting some other islands, he returned to Spain. He made some other voyages to the New World but he never discovered his mistake.

Christopher Columbus died in Valladdid, in 1506.







Thanksgiving Day



Thanksgiving Day is celebrated in the USA on the fourth Thursday of November, a different date every year. It is the feast connected with thanks for a plentiful harvest and it dates back to 17th century.

In 1620 a group of Puritans, who didn’t accept the rules of the Church of England decided to settle in the New World. They wanted to live in a country where they could pray and workship God in their own way.

The Pilgrims came to the place that is now the state of Massachusetts. They named the place Playmounth and decided to build their houses there.

The first winter was very hard and many Pilgrims died of cold and hunger. The following spring the Iroquois Indians taughts them how to plant corn and find wild fruit and vegetables. They gathered enough food for the second winter.

The Pilgrims were very happy and wanted to thank God for His grace. They were also grateful to their friends so they invited the Indians for dinner.

They had wild turkey and pumpkins. After dinner there were many contests and games.

Thanksgiving is a time for tradition and sharing. All members of the family meet of the house of the oldest relative and they thank together for the good things which happened in their lives the previous year. They eat a traditional dinner of roast turkey, sweet potatoes, squash, creamed onions and cranberries. They have pumpkin and mincemeat pies for dessert.

Thanksgiving Day is one of the most important annual holidays celebrated in the USA.







Guy Fawkes Day



Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated by British, on 5th November. The name this holiday origins from name Guy Fawkes. He was a Catholic who in 1605 tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament with gunpowder. However, the plot failed because king James I knew about the plot earlier. One of the plotters warned his relative not to go to the Houses of Parliament on that day. The king’s soldiers caught Guy Fawkes and he was executed.

Today, on 5 th November the English have fireworks and bonfires. English children prepare big dolls, dress them in old clothes and put old hats on their heads. The dolls are called “guys . Then children walk the streets carrying the “guys , and shout “A penny for the guy! . They also sing rhymes like this:



"Remember, remember

The fifth of November

Gunpowder treason and plot;

I see no reason

Why gunpowder treason

Should ever be forgot"



People give them some money so children can buy fireworks. Then they make big bonfires and burn their guys .







St. Patrick`s Day



St. Patrick’s Day is on March 17th and it is celebrated not only in Ireland but in many other countries, especially in the USA where many people come from Ireland.

This holiday has its roots in ancient times. There was a boy named Patrick who was probably born in Wales. One day some Irish pirates captured him and sold him to an Irishman. Patrick had to work very hard. After some time he escaped to Wales. He became a priest and decided to bring Christianity to Ireland. To this, he returned to Ireland in 432 AD. People who listened to his words became Christians. Patrick performed many miracles: he brought the dead back to life, drove all snakes away from Ireland. St. Patrick died on March 17th, 461.

St. Patrick’s Day is a joyful holiday and on this day you can see great parades in many cities. The most famous are the ones in Dublin and New York. Many people, organisations, marching bands and dance group take part in the parades. There are also special Holy Masses in honour of the saint. In the afternoon people take part in various games and sports, and in the evening they go to clubs, discos or meet and sing their traditional songs. This is called community singing.

On that day people wear green shirts, ties, hair ribbons, hats and shamrock. The shamrock is the symbol of Ireland because St. Patrick used it to explain the idea of the Trinity. Another symbol of Ireland is the harp. The Irish also send shamrock and greeting cards to their friends.



WHY A SHAMROCK?

A man came to the top of a hill and sat down on a big, mossy stone. He looked around and smiled. The scenery was breathtaking. He could see the green hills and plains of Ireland. Suddenly he heard a voice behind him: ‘Good day to you, Patrick’. He turned round and saw three local chieftains. ‘Good day’, answered Patrick. ‘What brings you here?’

‘Yesterday you told us about God, Jesus and the Holy Ghost. Your stories were wonderful but there is something we don’t understand’.

‘What is it? I hope I can explain it to you’, said Patrick.

‘You said there is one God in three persons. That can’t be so’, continued the men.

Patrick sighed. He spent many hours trying to teach them about the Trinity. They still didn’t understand it. What words could he use this time? Patrick looked at the grass at his feet and saw a shamrock. He had an idea!

‘Can you see this shamrock?’ he asked.

‘Yes’, they answered.

‘It is one plant with three leaves on one stem. The stem keeps the leaves together. Now, there is the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Three persons like three leaves. And they all form one Trinity. Three in one like three leaves of one shamrock’. Patrick finished talking and looked at the chieftains.

‘We understand it now. Thank you Patrick’, and the three men went to the village to take the story to the people. Patrick was left alone. He looked around and smiled.






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